We've detected an outdated browser.

You may want to consider updating your browser. International Policy Digest requires a modern browser in order to view the website properly.

Click here for information on how to update your browser.

Continue Anyways
Religion

Tag Archives | Religion

Banning the Snip: The Debate on Circumcision

|
Male circumcision

Chancellor Angela Merkel has a plateful of matters to deal with, most of them of an economic nature. Europe is stuttering and staggering, and the Dame of Austerity is finding herself with fewer friends by the day.

Male circumcision

With the recent decision by the regional court in Cologne disapproving the legality of circumcision for underage boys, a storm has erupted that has given her another issue to worry about. The debate may never have taken place had the doctor who performed the circumcision on the couple’s child not been charged with bodily harm. The Chancellor’s sentiments were recorded in the Bild daily: “I do not want Germany to be the only country in the world where Jews cannot practise their rituals.”

“Otherwise we will become a laughing stock,” Merkel continued rather emphatically. Both Merkel and Joerg van Essen, parliamentary floor leader of the Free Democrats, have suggested that laws overturning the effect of the ruling will be introduced over the autumn.  The first thing to note in this sea of hysteria is the limited nature of the ruling. The court’s jurisdiction is confined to the city of Cologne and its environs. The fear there, of course, is one of precedent. Nor did the court expressly outlaw circumcision of underage boys. The regional court emphasised that the “fundamental right of the child to bodily integrity outweighed the fundamental rights of the parents.”

Continue Reading →

‘Democracy’ and Slaughter in Burma: Gold Rush Overrides Human Rights

|
Aung San Suu Kyi talks with Hillary Clinton in Burma

Aung San Suu Kyi talks with Hillary Clinton at her home in Burma

The widespread killings of Rohingya Muslims in Burma – or Myanmar - have received only passing and dispassionate coverage in most media. What they actually warrant is widespread outrage and decisive efforts to bring further human rights abuses to an immediate halt. “Burmese helicopter set fire to three boats carrying nearly 50 Muslim Rohingyas fleeing sectarian violence in western Burma in an attack that is believed to have killed everyone on board,” reported Radio Free Europe on July 12.

Why would anyone take such fatal risks? Refugees are attempting to escape imminent death, torture or arrest at the hands of the Ethnic Buddhist Rakhine majority, which has the full support of the Burmese government.

The relatively little media interest in Burma’s ‘ethnic clashes’ is by no means an indication of the significance of the story. The recent flaring of violence followed the raping and killing of a Rhakine woman on May 28, allegedly by three Rohingya men.

Continue Reading →

American Influence on the Development of Democracy in the Islamic World

|
The spread of Islam across the world cannot be written off as a regressive element of society but as a developing agent of civilization

The spread of Islam across the world cannot be written off as a regressive element of society but as a developing agent of civilization

In American foreign policy regarding the Middle East, a trend has developed into a paramount issue. The concern over what is the role of Islam in national governments. The past decade spent in Iraq and Afghanistan has made this even more obvious. The rise in “Islamophobia” in America following September 11 has only reinforced this misconception. In the wake of the “Arab Spring” in 2011, there exists an opportunity for a watershed moment in working towards stability in the Middle East but the possibility of which is diminished by this tendency.

The larger part of this issue concerns America’s crusade to spread democracy in the region. The problem is that one of the founding principles of Western democracy is the separation of church and state. The reasoning behind this it to protect ethnic and religious minorities rights against the rule of any single majority. However, the hysteria that followed the attacks on the World Trade Center has entrenched the misconception in the America populace that governments whose laws are partially based on the Islamic religion are fundamentally uncivilized and instable. This mistake continues to result in policy decisions that are not only haphazard to America interests, but also global security.

At the heart of this dilemma is the modern conception of civilization. The idea of television, the internet, cell phones, and pop culture has become anonymous with the American perception of civilization. Many Americans fail to understand that the West has not always been the civilized place they call home. A millennium ago when Europe was still in the thralls of Dark Ages, the Middle East was the host of intellectually and technological innovation.  The Renaissance would not have been made possible if Islamic scholars had not preserved and developed Greek and Roman knowledge. Far from being an agent of barbarism, Islam preserved civilization when Europe was caught in the dissolution of the Roman Empire for a thousand years.

Continue Reading →

The Vice of Memory: Vidovdan and Serbia’s Jerusalem

|
Patriarch Pavle at Gazimestan. Photo: Darko Dozet

In the Belgrade fortress that used to boast one of the Ottoman Empire’s most formidable bastions, rests a charming church aromatic with incense.

Patriarch Pavle at Gazimestan. Photo: Darko Dozet

A strict placard lies in wait at the entrance, warning the attendees that they should dress properly, keep their hands out of pockets, take their hats off and observe in respect.  The side entrance of the ‘Rose’ or Ružica church is flanked by the sentimental sculptures of two Serbian soldiers from different eras – one from World War I, the other from the 14th century.

It is an apt setting of memory given the Kosovo anniversary – each year, the date approaches Serbs like a fast moving train, heavy with purpose. The occupants of that train are the usual grievances and sad reflections, the stock that has been held in thought since the martyrdom of Saint Lazar (Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović) on June 28, 1389 before the fast advancing Ottoman Turks. Depending on which history book you consult, it was either a remarkable feat that checked the advance of Islam into Europe, or a disastrous loss to the Serbian nation which saw its army wiped out.  Whether it was anybody’s victory is questionable: both Lazar and the Turkish leader Sultan Murad I lost their lives.

Continue Reading →

Women’s Rights in Malaysia

and |
Zainah Anwar, the founder of Sisters-in-Islam.  Image via U.S.-Islamic World Forum

Zainah Anwar, the founder of Sisters-in-Islam. Image via U.S.-Islamic World Forum

The mostly Muslim nation of Malaysia has always walked a fine line between protecting the rights of Malay women and acknowledging the role that Islam plays in the daily lives of its citizens. Yet many of the obstacles facing Malaysian society disproportionately affect women. These include endemic poverty, human trafficking, environmental degradation, a rise in the numbers of refugees, civil unrest, crime and a resurgent Islamic movement. Nonetheless in this mostly Muslim country of nearly 30 million people, by comparison with other Islamic nations, the fight for greater protection of Malaysian women’s rights has had some success.

This balance between a secular and sectarian society has largely been the result of Malaysia’s former prime minister, Mahathir Mohamad. In contrast to Malaysia’s largest neighbor, Indonesia, Mr. Mohamad did make significant concessions to Parti Islam se-Malaysia (PAS), Malaysia’s largest Islamic party, to placate religious conservatives.

The emergence of politicized Islam has posed a challenge to civil society groups determined to uphold democracy, human rights, and women’s rights. Women groups in many Muslim countries are at the frontline in challenging the religious establishment and their justification of the subordination of women and discrimination against them. Yet their efforts are constrained by religious norms that make even basic women’s rights appear radical.

Continue Reading →

The Muslim Brotherhood and Egyptian Democracy

|
Egypt's new president, Mohamed Morsi. Source: Al Jazeera

Egypt’s new president, Mohamed Morsi. Source: Al Jazeera

Against all odds the Muslim Brotherhood’s (MB) candidate, Dr. Muhammad Mursi won Egypt’s first presidential election since the ouster of dictator Hosni Mubarak…but barely. Although the official results will not be announced until Thursday, the final tally shows that Mursi received 13.3 million votes (52 percent) while Mubarak’s last prime minister and the candidate of the military and the regime remnants, Gen. Ahmad Shafiq, garnered 12.4 million votes (48 percent).  It should never have been that close. Countless people wonder how a popular revolution that united millions of Egyptians against a corrupt regime and earned the world’s admiration, could have resulted in that same loathed regime on the brink of reclaiming power after little more than a year. Of course, the direct answer to this question is the ominous role played by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), which took control of the country after Mubarak’s downfall, as well as the institutions of Egypt’s deep security state.

Their tactics included the direct manipulations of the elections process, the inexplicably favorable decisions by the Mubarak-era Presidential Elections Commission, the use of state media as well as private media outlets controlled by Mubarak-era corrupt businessmen to frighten the public about the specter of an impending theocracy, the clever ability to play the pro-revolution groups against each other, and the SCAF-appointed government’s deliberate disruption of the daily lives of ordinary Egyptians through the constriction of key staples and a lack of security in the street. Soon the public associated the revolution with instability, shortages and chaos.  Dejected, many wished for the days of the old regime.

Throughout last year and aided by the Muslim Brotherhood’s missteps and behind-the-scenes dalliances with the generals, SCAF was able to create acute alienation and sow real mistrust between the MB, the country’s largest organized movement, and the rest of the pro-revolution and youth groups. By the end of March 2012, SCAF felt so emboldened by the success of its plan that it began to openly challenge and threaten the now alienated MB, despite the fact that the group was by that time firmly in charge of both chambers of parliament.

Continue Reading →

Back to Square One in Egypt?

|
A general view for the first Egyptian parliament session after the revolution that ousted former President Hosni Mubarak in Cairo, January 23, 2012. Asmaa Waguih/Reuters

A general view for the first Egyptian parliament session after the revolution that ousted former President Hosni Mubarak in Cairo, January 23, 2012. Asmaa Waguih/Reuters

On Thursday June 14, the High Constitutional Court in Egypt will rule on two pending motions that may radically change the future course of Egypt and determine the fate of its remarkable – but unfinished- revolution. The two motions are the constitutionality of the political ban on the former regime senior officials, such as Gen. Ahmad Shafiq, the undeclared military’s candidate for president, and the constitutionality of last winter’s parliamentary elections. Each decision might drastically alter the power structure in the country, and possibly propel another revolution whose fate remains unclear.  But how did we get to this point of complete uncertainty?

History will show that the unity displayed by the Egyptian people during the eighteen revolutionary days in early 2011 was decisive in convincing the Egyptian military to dump Mubarak and side with the people. Although the revolution was initially called for and led by the youth groups on January 25, soon after most political and social movements, religious and secular, and civil society groups including labor unions, professional syndicates, students, as well as the common man and woman in the street were demonstrating across Egypt by the millions, demanding the ouster of their dictator and the end of his corrupt regime.

By the time Mubarak was overthrown on February 11, 2011, the Egyptian people were divided into two camps: an overwhelming majority that celebrated the triumph of the revolution, and a tiny minority that comprised the remnants of the old regime, which included party bosses of Mubarak’s National Democratic Party (NDP), his sons’ corrupt businessmen and cronies who looted billions of dollars from Egypt’s economy, and the resilient structure of the deep state that, for decades, ruled Egyptians through fear, intimidation, and propaganda including the top echelons of the military, intelligence services, state security apparatuses, as well as state media conglomerates.

Continue Reading →

Should Boko Haram be Designated a Foreign Terrorist Organization?

|
Boko Haram Christmas Day bombing which killed dozens. Source: Foreign Policy

Boko Haram Christmas Day bombing which killed dozens. Source: Foreign Policy

Boko Haram continued their killing on Sunday, 10 June 2012, when a suicide bomber blew up his car outside a church and gunmen opened fire on another service in Nigeria. At the same time, there is a fierce debate in Washington whether to designate the activities of the Islamic sect, Boko Haram as a Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO). FTO or not, Boko Haram is extremely sophisticated and well equipped. It uses a mixture of suicide bombers and gunmen, which was evident by Sunday’s attack. Often some members are in police or army uniforms while they carry out their carefully coordinated attacks on hard targets. Where has it learned and acquired all of its new capabilities from…al-Qaeda in the Maghreb or AQIM.

There are many reasons why the growth and expansion of Boko Haram has to end now. Firstly, although Boko Haram has a highly decentralized structure, it does have leaders that are relentless. And its current leader, Abubakar Shekau, is nothing short of a monster. “I enjoy killing anyone that God commands me to kill – the way I enjoy killing chickens and rams,” he said in the video clip released just after Boko Haram had killed 180 people in Kano, northern Nigeria’s largest city. He regularly orders bombings and drive-by shootings against anyone who disagrees with the group; Muslims, Christians, Jews, doesn’t matter.

Not only are they relentless, they are smart and well trained. Mamman Nur, known as Boko Haram’s third in charge when its founder Mohammed Yusaf was alive, is viewed as the mastermind behind the 26 August 2011 bombing of Abuja’s UN building that killed at least 21 and wounded 60. Nur has al-Qaeda links and returned just before the attack from Somalia where he was working with al-Shaabab. Secondly, Nigeria has ethnic militias that have contributed to the cycle of violence over the years. They have a political element to them and are often seen as self-defense by particular ethno-religious communities. The fact is these many ethnic militias and separatist groups in Nigeria are proof that there are many grievances and injustices in the system, which needs to be addressed and is beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, it is important to note that Nigeria is a country of over 120 million people, 39 federal states and 249 languages.

Continue Reading →

The Arab Spring and the Image of Islam

|
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey. Photo: Vince Millett

Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey. Photo: Vince Millett

Based on lecture at the Advanced Studies Research Center, Brussels, Belgium.

The multi-season Arab Spring is the third anti-imperialist Arab revolt in less than a century: against the Ottoman empire, against the Western Italian–French–English empire, and now the US-Israel empire. The empires hit back. The Ottomans were weak, but England–France–Israel even invaded Egypt in 29 October 1956––in the shadow of the Hungarian revolt against the Soviet empire that crumbled nearly a quarter century later. And now it is the turn of USA–Israel to try to maintain an illegitimate structure.

So much for the background. In the foreground is class, pitting the powerless at the bottom against the powerful at the top. Wealth flows upward, accelerated by corruption; military, police and secret police forces protect the top against revolts; decision-making is by dictatorships; all of this that used to be justified by the fight against communism is now hitched on to fight against Islamism.  Needless to say, we can have corrupt, brutal dictatorships in Arab countries without any imperial backing. Like in former colonies––Libya, Palestine, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria––where borders were drawn regardless of inner and outer fault-lines. The architects thought that by sheer force they could contain such “indigenous tribal” conflicts. Their successors followed in their tracks, with dictatorship and force. But less so in Egypt and Tunisia: they were old, established countries.

But imperialism, as opposed to naked force, works through local elites that can do whatever they want to their people as long as they serve the imperial interests. The Ottoman empire was run from Istanbul; the Western empire was partly based on monarchs that were deposed. The US–Israel empire is based on more ordinary corruptible, brutal dictators.

Continue Reading →

What’s Changed in Egypt?

|
Anti-Mubarak rally in Tahrir Square. Photo by Jonathan Rashad

Anti-Mubarak rally in Tahrir Square. Photo: Jonathan Rashad

The day of judgment for Hosni Mubarak arrived on June 2. The 84-year-old deposed president was given a life sentence with his interior minister, Habib al-Adly, for the killing of hundreds of protesters during last year’s uprising. Mubarak and his sons, Gamal and Alaa, were acquitted of corruption charges. The court also acquitted a number of key interior ministry officials and security chiefs. Some Egyptians celebrated immediately after the verdicts were announced. Soon, however, the mood turned angry, because many thought that the verdicts were too lenient. Both Mubarak and Adly will have the right to appeal. Other factors, too, continue to foment anxiety in the country.

Millions of Egyptians had voted in the first round of the presidential election only a few days before. Just who will become president after the final round in a fortnight is not certain, but the drift of Egyptian politics is clear enough. The two leading candidates who emerged from the first round and will fight it out for the presidency of the most important Arab state are poles apart; the moderates have been eliminated from the race. One candidate to emerge from the first round was Muhammed Mursi of the Muslim Brotherhood. Just behind Mursi was Ahmed Shafiq, a former military officer and briefly prime minister in the final days of the Mubarak presidency.

Shafiq was initially disqualified under a law prohibiting figures associated with the previous regime, but hastily reinstated as a presidential candidate. He received favorable coverage in the state media in the run-up to the first round. When the votes had been counted, the difference between Mursi and Shafiq was no more than one percent and both went into the second round.

Continue Reading →

Reading the Egyptian Elections

|
Egyptian voter in Cairo. Photo: Jonathan Rashad

Egyptian voter in Cairo. Photo: Jonathan Rashad

The Egyptian people are still in shock ever since the announcement of the results of the presidential elections late last week. They refuse to accept an outcome that sees Gen. Ahmad Shafiq, the last Prime Minister of deposed dictator Hosni Mubarak, having received more than 5.5 million votes, or about 24 percent of the votes cast, less than one percent behind the frontrunner and Muslim Brotherhood candidate, Dr. Muhammad Mursi.

After the dust has settled, some remarkable facts have been revealed that point towards an extremely sophisticated operation, which ensured that Shafiq would receive enough votes to go to the second round runoff (that could only have been pulled off by the Egyptian security apparatus with the support of the military and the remnants of Mubarak’s banned National Democratic Party). This is how it could have happened.  The first significant fact is that the overall number of registered voters increased by more than 4.5 million people in less than three months. In Egypt, every person is automatically added to the registered voter rolls after reaching the age of eighteen.

Egyptians cast their vote using the national identification number given to each citizen at birth. Between late November 2011 and January 2012, citizens went to the polls to elect their parliament over three different stages in nine different provinces in each stage. After each vote, the head of the elections commission declared the results starting with the total number of registered voters.  At the end of each stage the total number of registered voters was announced publicly as follows: 13,614,525 after stage one, 18,831,129 after stage two, and 14,039,300 after stage three for a total of 46,484,954. However, after the presidential elections the head of the elections commission announced this week that the total number of registered voters was 50,996,746 an incredible increase of 4,511,792 (or over 80 percent of the total votes received by Shafiq.) When the secretary of the elections commission, Judge Hatem Bagato, was asked in a press conference about this discrepancy, he lied outright, stating that the total number of registered voters last November was 50.1 million.

Continue Reading →

Egypt’s Presidential Election Results: The Sacking of a Revolution

|
Egyptian voters in Cairo. Photo: Jonathan Rashad

Egyptian voters in Cairo. Photo: Jonathan Rashad

Fifteen months after millions of Egyptians - led by the revolutionary youth - were united in their demand to end a corrupt and suffocating dictatorship, they were now divided as they headed to the polls in the last two days in order to elect a new president. During this transitional period the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF), which has ruled the country since Mubarak was deposed in February 2011, failed to uphold its promise of honoring the goals of the revolution by uprooting the corrupt elements of the former regime.

The unofficial results of the presidential elections show that the Muslim Brotherhood candidate Dr. Muhammad Mursi is headed to a runoff with Mubarak’s last Prime Minister and the anti-revolution candidate, Gen. Ahmad Shafiq. They received 24 and 23 percent of the votes, respectively. Meanwhile the two candidates supported by the revolutionary groups, Dr. Abdelmoneim Abol Fotouh and Hamdein Sabahi received 17 and 20 percent respectively, while former foreign minister Amr Moussa was a distant fifth with less than 11 percent. So what happened and how can one understand these results?

The Revolutionaries were Divided

There is no doubt that the failure of the revolutionary groups to unify their ranks and field a single candidate or a presidential ticket has cost them the chance to come out on top in this round and head for a runoff. Combined, both candidates received 37 percent, which would have guaranteed them victory in the first round had they run as president and vice president. But despite many efforts towards that end, both candidates refused to concede. Abol Fotouh argued that the country’s electorate has been favoring a candidate with an Islamist background, and thus he represented that consensus candidate who could bridge the divide between the Islamists and the secularists. Sabahi, on the other hand, argued that the country did not need another Islamist candidate after the results of the parliamentary elections, in which Islamists took 75 percent of the seats.

Continue Reading →

Sudan’s Oil War

and |
Sudan People’s Liberation Army unit. Nenad Marinkovic/Enough Project

Sudan People’s Liberation Army unit. Nenad Marinkovic/Enough Project

Since the January 2011 referendum vote for independence and subsequent separation the following July, militia violence has been increasing across the borderlands. Hostilities were initiated by Sudan as a means of destabilizing the newly formed South Sudanese government. The situation continued to escalate with both sides funding and arming paramilitaries to conduct cross-border raids. In doing so, leaders in Juba knew they were giving Khartoum what it wanted, but many believed that if they did not respond accordingly to Northern aggression, then South Sudanese residing in Sudan would be targeted by government forces.

By March 2012, a tentative agreement was reached by both governments – dubbed the “Four Freedoms” – but conservative hardliners in the North stopped the ratification, believing the South was acting as a fifth column against Northern interests. Struck down at the eleventh hour, the Four Freedoms agreement led to the 8 April 2012 deadline, which passed without citizenship parameters being set in place, leaving both populations in an inauspicious legal situation.

The accelerating outbreak in violence, culminating in South Sudan’s incursion into Heglig, is a direct result of the lack of progress made during negotiations on matters encompassing security, citizenship, and revenue from natural resources. North-South discussions were continually undermined not only by Khartoum’s ignorance – an inability to fully comprehend how the North’s legacy irreparably damaged relations with the South’s citizenry – but also by Islamic hardliners. South Sudan’s incursion into Heglig intensified the situation and justified the fifth-column perception.  The manner in which Khartoum’s leadership treated the South Sudanese stemmed from the way in which they were perceived by the Northern population. Referred to as a ‘bid’ or black slave, the South Sudanese were not seen as equals, and thus, during the decades-long conflict, in the minds of the North it was not a civil war but a slave rebellion that needed to be stopped.

Continue Reading →

Social Business: Challenges and Opportunities

|
Muhammad Yunus, Managing Director, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh, at the Annual Meeting 2009 of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.  Photo: Remy Steinegger

In social development, social business has emerged as an important topic. Its impact on enriching and empowering people’s lives has become evident all over the world.

Muhammad Yunus, Managing Director, Grameen Bank, Bangladesh, at the Annual Meeting 2009 of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Photo: Remy Steinegger

To combat the global economic crisis, social business has harnessed the advent of technology and modern science to eradicate poverty, hunger, unemployment and other social problems.  Social business has been around for the last three decades in Bangladesh. It has empowered women and reformed many facets of society.  Bettina Wassener of The New York Times writes, “Microlending, which took off in the 1980s, has allowed many women to start tiny businesses. More recently, millions of people have found work in the garment industry, which accounts for about three-quarters of the nation’s exports.”

The world economy changed in the beginning of the 1990s. With the end of the Cold War, the free market economy spread throughout the world leading to a tremendous economic boom. At the same time, social and political conflicts have also dominated our lives. The free market economy cannot end hunger, unemployment, and poverty.  In fact, it often causes these problems. To tackle the social problems, we need to adopt social business, a model that encourages businesses to make profit and invest in social development. It’s a win-win situation.

Recent Wall Street fallouts depict the problems of the free market economy. Greed and recklessness often consume those who seek big profits and bonuses. As an alternative to traditional businesses that not only seek profits but also promote social development, social business has caught our attention.  Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr. Yunus is the inventor of this innovative business model. The distribution of resources in the world today is unequal. In fact, there is a huge gap between the haves and have-nots. The consequences of this lack of distribution have caused poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, poor health, and other social problems.

Continue Reading →

Hidden Hands behind Sudan’s Oil War

|
South Sudan's presidential guard await the arrival of foreign dignitaries invited to participate in the country's official independence celebrations in Juba. Photo: Steve Evans

South Sudan’s presidential guard await the arrival of foreign dignitaries invited to participate in the country’s official independence celebrations in Juba. Photo: Steve Evans

Once again Sudan’s President Omar al-Bashir waved his walking stick in the air. Once again he spoke of splendid victories over his enemies as thousands of jubilant supporters danced and cheered. But this time around the stakes are too high.  An all out war against newly independent South Sudan might not be in Sudan’s best interest. South Sudan’s saber-rattling is not an entirely independent initiative; its most recent territorial transgressions - which saw the occupation of Sudan’s largest oil field in Heglig on April 10, followed by a hasty retreat ten days later – might have been a calculated move aimed at drawing Sudan into a larger conflict. Stunted by the capture of Heglig, which, according to some estimates, provides nearly half of the country’s oil production, Bashir promised victory over Juba.

Speaking to large crowd in the capital of North Kordofan, El-Obeid, Bashir affectively declared war. “Heglig isn’t the end, it is the beginning,” he said, as quoted in the Wall Street Journal. Bashir also declared a desire to ‘liberate’ the people of South Sudan from a government composed of ‘insects.’ Even when Heglig was declared a liberated region by Sudan’s defence minister, the humiliation of defeat was simply replaced by the fervor of victory. “They started the fighting and we will announce when it will end, and our advance will never stop,” Bashir announced on April 20.

Statements issued by the government of South Sudan are clearly more measured, with an international target audience in mind. Salva Kiir, President of South Sudan, simply said that his forces departed the region following appeals made by the international community. This includes a statement by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, which described the attack on Heglig as “an infringement on the sovereignty of Sudan and a clearly illegal act.”

Continue Reading →